Associate Professor in Communication & Theatre Arts, Old Dominion University. She received her Ph.D. in Communication at Case Western Reserve University. She conducts research on the framing of messages through political cartoons, press stories, and debate. Her areas of Expertise include Communication, media studies, Middle East.

“My experiences in terms of the Hizmet Movement is—going back to the idea that Islam is a way of life—it’s lived and, as a consequence, you set an example. I have not been proselytized by people in the Movement.”

“They certainly have the opportunity to lobby and to lobby their representatives in the Parliament. I don’t see the Gulen Movement doing anything differently than The American Medical Association does, or The National Rifle Association does, or the Red Cross does in the United States.

This is how you get—as government official— information about what the population is thinking.”

“You need to be open to all groups in your population; the Gulen Movement, and the anti-Gulen Movement people and the people who are advocating building an agricultural project somewhere in the Eastern part of Turkey. That’s part of how democracy works; there’s this back and forth dialogue.”

“If you start blaming and you start scapegoating, that ends the dialogue, which means you may be missing out on some very important information that you need to hear.”